We present a novel method for generating performance-driven, "hand-drawn" animation in real-time. Given an annotated set of hand-drawn faces for various expressions, our algorithm performs multi-way morphs to generate real-time animation that mimics the expressions of a user. Our system consists of a vision-based tracking component and a rendering component. Together, they form an animation system that can be used in a variety of applications, including teleconferencing, multi-user virtual worlds, compressed instructional videos, and consumer-oriented animation kits. This paper describes our algorithms in detail and illustrates the potential for this work in a teleconferencing application. Experience with our implementation suggests that there are several advantages to our hand-drawn characters over other alternatives: (1) flexibility of animation style; (2) increased compression of expression information; and (3) masking of errors made by the face tracking system that are distracting in photorealistic animations.
Ian Buck, Adam Finkelstein, Charles Jacobs, Allison Klein, David H. Salesin, Joshua Seims, Richard Szeliski, and Kentaro Toyama.
"Performance-Driven Hand-Drawn Animation."
NPAR 2000 : First International Symposium on Non Photorealistic Animation and Rendering, pp. 101-108, June 2000.
author = "Ian Buck and Adam Finkelstein and Charles Jacobs and Allison Klein and
David H. Salesin and Joshua Seims and Richard Szeliski and
title = "Performance-Driven Hand-Drawn Animation",
booktitle = "NPAR 2000 : First International Symposium on Non Photorealistic
Animation and Rendering",
year = "2000",
month = jun,
pages = "101--108"