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Texture Mapping for Cel Animation

Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 98, July 1998

Wagner Toledo Corrêa, Robert J. Jensen,
Craig E. Thayer, Adam Finkelstein

We present a method for applying complex textures to hand-drawn characters in cel animation. The method correlates features in a simple, textured, 3-D model with features on a hand-drawn figure, and then distorts the model to conform to the hand-drawn artwork. The process uses two new algorithms: a silhouette detection scheme and a depth-preserving warp. The silhouette detection algorithm is simple and efficient, and it produces continuous, smooth, visible contours on a 3-D model. The warp distorts the model in only two dimensions to match the artwork from a given camera perspective, yet preserves 3-D effects such as self-occlusion and foreshortening. The entire process allows animators to combine complex textures with hand-drawn artwork, leveraging the strengths of 3-D computer graphics while retaining the expressiveness of traditional hand-drawn cel animation.

Wagner Toledo Corrêa, Robert J. Jensen, Craig E. Thayer, and Adam Finkelstein.
"Texture Mapping for Cel Animation."
Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 98, pp. 435-446, July 1998.


   author = "Wagner Toledo Corr{\^e}a and Robert J. Jensen and Craig E. Thayer and
      Adam Finkelstein",
   title = "Texture Mapping for Cel Animation",
   booktitle = "Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 98",
   year = "1998",
   month = jul,
   pages = "435--446"